The interplanetary conditions coinciding with the Apollo missions had important implications for the state of the lunar environment experienced by the astronauts, and measured by the many of the scientific investigations carried aboard the command modules and deployed on the surface of the Moon. The first comprehensive overview is presented here of the space plasma, solar ultraviolet, energetic particle, geomagnetic, and meteoroid stream conditions encountered by the Moon during these historic missions. This also includes an investigation of the location of the Moon with respect to the Earth’s bow shock and magnetopause boundaries in order to assess whether it likely encountered either the shocked plasma of the magnetosheath or the hot tenuous plasmas of the magnetosphere, respectively, during these missions. The interplanetary conditions during the Apollo era are placed into the context of the last four solar cycles and subsequent lunar missions. The Apollo era began during the peak of solar cycle 20 and continued through to the middle of the declining phase, and so was subject to a relatively high level of solar activity. Subsequent lunar missions have, so far, all flown around solar minimum, which means that the observations during the Apollo era still provide some of the best in situ measurements of the lunar environment driven by high levels of solar activity.