Many space-faring nations are planning missions and architectures to explore the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Mars in the coming decade. The plans include a combination of robotic exploration as well as new human endeavors beyond the ISS and Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Already space entrepreneurs have announced ambitious plans such as roving and mining on the Moon; ‘harvesting’ resources on NEAs; and establishing human outposts on the Moon and Mars-- all of which raise questions of how to ensure that exploration and use beyond Earth orbit are conducted in responsible and balanced ways by multiple stakeholders, consistent with the Outer Space Treaty. As plans for commecial, private and non-science activities increase, there is a growing need to establish more comprehensive guidelines, particularly for the Moon. This paper examines and compares environmental management and use strategies in current major treaties that govern international spaces--and considers the physical, institutional and ethical concerns raised by various stakeholders involved in science exploration vs. 'use.' Currently, there are no specific guidelines for addressing the mix of science, commercial, and private space activities ahead-- which may result in serious problems for science research in the coming years. To address the potential issues , there is a need to initiate a stepwise, flexible approach that builds on scientific information about planetary environments and seeks to develop practical guidelines for environmental stewardship that will be respected and adhered to by all spacefaring nations in the coming decades.